Τhe object of this doctoral thesis is the study, in depth analysis and modelling of the electromagnetic interaction between the human body and the antennas used in the handsets of modern wireless telecommunication systems. The aim is twofold. On one hand is the estimation of the antenna efficiency reduction that is caused by the presence of the user’s body in small distance and on the other hand is the study and precise determination of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the human body (especially the human head) at the use of a wireless terminal. The final aim is the contribution in the design of wireless terminals (e.g. mobile telephones) that will be more efficient in their operation and simultaneously safer for their user.In this thesis, an extensive study and analysis of the parameters related with the interaction between the wireless terminal antenna and the user’s body were realized. Experimental terminal prototypes were designed, modelled, constructed and measured in the presence of human head models in order to estimate the radiation absorption from the head and the degradation of the antenna efficiency. An appropriate measurements methodology at the far field was developed for the precise measurement of the terminal antenna characteristics. Ways of operation improvement using multiple antennas at the terminal were also studied. Finally, the effect of the user’s hand at MIMO terminal performance was examined.