Environmental crisis affects human society directly and indirectly. The methodology of essentially identifying and recording natural parameters is connected to environmental degradation. The technological achievements of the last two centuries have created new prospects of interaction between man and his environment that is living into. Likewise, recent developments in hardware and software technologies have profoundly shaped the current context of application in computer sciences.The enrichment of human life through technological solutions may serve as a stepping stone to minimize environmental impact. These solutions are derived from complex scientific processes, which offer integrity, scientific relevance and can be applied continuously. The increased accessibility to state of the art technologies and the increased level of skills held by the average citizen, generate continuous growth prospects of modern and useful methods targeting the protection and preservation of the environment.
Environmental Monitoring consists of the descriptive procedures and actions for quality assessment. The scope of environmental observation is placed on biotic and abiotic components of the atmospheric layers of the earth and provides useful information in order to detect potential variable patterns of physical processes, which can be classified as physical, chemical or biological. The sampling parameters characterizing by the physical process which generates data for understanding the situation and composition of the environment.
The term “Geomatics” defines the systematic, multidisciplinary and integrated approach with the intention of determine appropriate techniques of sorting, storage, integration, modeling, analysis, retrieval, transformation, promotion and distribution of data accompnied by spatial reference. Through Geomatics each element / attribute on Earth is geo-referenced and used as a geographical entity. This study utilizes a number, but quite important, of the methods which comprise the geomatics, in order to design a functional environment monitoring scheme. Subsequently, the proposed platform is based on methods developed through Computer Sciences and utilises technologies such as the Global Positioning System and WebGIS. Additionaly Participatory Sensing serves this purpose, as it allows access and contribution by individuals and groups in a common knowledge sphere. Broader application of information technologies and exponential growth of the computing power of mobile devices have made possible the participatory detection of natural phenomena on larger scale. Participatory Geographic Information Systems are a participatory approach to spatial planning, spatial information management and communication. They are an effort to harness GIS science based on the content of the needs and capabilities available to the communities involved, to develop implementable projects as appropriate.
The evolution of modern GPS technology (Global Positioning System) and the development of new analytical and presentation capabilities of spatial information conducive to the expansion of applications in the science of GIS. Additionally, massification of mobile internet through mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches) enables provisioning of Internet by the casual user as an active member of a “digital community”.
This study involves the experimental implementation of an environmental monitoring system (Environmenntal monitoring) based on a template sensor network (Sensor Network). This network consists of hardware structures, a client / server, an Android application and a web GIS platform. The system follows the example of the “Internet of Things” (Internet of Things – IoT) and is mainly based on the open hardware platform Arduino. In Arduino has a variety of environmenta monitoring sensors from which are produced the corresponding processing parameters. The sensing devices are divided into two types of monitoring stations: a) fixed placed, which is permanently installed in buildings and connects directly to the server and b) portable, which operates through portable Android devices, by integrating the appropriate software. The transmission and management of variables is based on the MQTT protocol which is supported by the combined operation of a MQTT broker, a web server and a database, specifically developed for this application.
The functionality of the design is based on the simultaneous sensing of environmental conditions in addition to the recording of the geographical position. An important aspect of this study is the variety of spatial distribution, as fixed stations are installed in public buildings, and mobile in public and private vehicles. Furthermore, they are capable of recording at shorter distances in walking or cycling speeds. Portable stations offer many options in addition to continuous recordings of fixed units which support investigation of further correlations leading to environmental degradation. Also, the platform offers online measurement corroboratingto the direct identification of pollution standards. Finally, the processing parameters are superimposed n in a dynamic WebGIS environment, which provide spatiotemporal presentation of the observed variables.